- There are only two basic philosophies
are two basic philosophies in the world and, because these philosophies are diametrically
opposed to each other, they give rise to conflicting policies.
The first philosophy is one which conceives of all power and authority arising
from a point EXTERNAL to the individual.
The second philosophy conceives of all power and authority arising from WITHIN
The first philosophy
automatically gives rise to policies which demands a certain type of organisation
in order to impose certain conditions upon the individual. This philosophy results
in the Individual being subordinated to the State, the System, or some other abstraction.
It can be termed a false philosophy, because it gives rise to policies which conflict
with the natural desires of the Individual. This false belief system is helped
by many people who may even be opposed to one another. For example there is the
alleged conflict between Communism and Fascism. We must learn to look beyond labels
to the reality behind the labels.
philosophy which conceives of reality as an environment in which the Individual
can make the greatest progress towards self-development, gives rise to a social
structure in which there is the greatest possible decentralisation of all policies
including financial policies. Jesus of' Nazareth stated the Christian - the realistic
philosophy - when he said:-"The Kingdom of God is within you."
- Human Societies
These two philosophies, and
the policies arising from them, result in two different types of organisation;
and all human organisation has to do with the association of individuals.
Douglas wrote in "The Tragedy of Human Effort":
principles which govern association for the common good are as capable of exact
statement as the principles of bridge-building, and departure from them just as
disastrous. Human society is essentially an organisation, and to be successful,
organisation cannot be a haphazard affair."
Why do individuals associate?
In answering this question it is essential
that we draw attention to the fact that what is termed civilisation was unknown
at one time in human history. Mankind, at one period lived the life of wanderers.
The only unit was the family, or possibly the tribe. Civilisation resulted from
the nomadic life being exchanged for the settled, permanent community life. Various
historians have given slightly different versions of the ways Civilisation began,
but they are all agreed that it was from the result of individuals discovering
that by living in permanent communities, they could obtain results which were
otherwise impossible of attainment.
The historian Elliot Smith put it thus:
"True civilisation began when man adopted a settled mode of life based upon
the practice of agriculture. The realisation of the possibility of obtaining a
secure means of sustenance without giving up his whole time to the daily search
for food, induced man to settle in a definite place, which he made his home. It
also provided him with the leisure and the inducement to devise arts and crafts
and a social organisation, the need for which was now felt by simple nomads".
- Society is clearly a device
by the complexities of modern civilisation, the primary objective of social life
remains what it was originally: to obtain greater security and freedom for the
It is of fundamental importance that we realise clearly that society
is a device which exists for the benefit of individuals; society is built up from
the individual, and all organisations which have been evolved through social life
are for the purpose of' serving their requirements.
The reason individuals
associate is in order to gain some common objective which would be more difficult,
or impossible for them to attain if they worked for it separately. The conviction
that by association they can gain the objective they desire, brings them together
as a group, co-operating to a predetermined end.
This is true of any association
of individuals. It is true of a factory, of a cricket or football club, of a community
or a nation; of society as a whole. To the degree that the individuals forming
such associations are convinced that they obtain the objective, or objection,
for which they are associating, the group will function vigorously. It will progress
and be successful. But if it fails to yield to its individual members the results
which they expect from their association, they will become dissatisfied and the
group will tend to break up.
It is the operation
of this ever-increasing dissatisfaction with the results of the present social
system - which we are witnessing at every hand - which is leading to the rapid
disintegration of our communities, societies and civilisation.
have been describing a typical voluntary association. Individual members are free
to leave if they are not satisfied with the results being obtained. In such associations
organisations are designed specifically to get members of the association the
results which they desire.
We can perhaps contrast the types of organisation
we are studying by picturing them diagrammatically.
A Cricket Club Analogy
The voluntary organisation can be pictured as a
circle with a centre. In such an organisation, which, let us recall is the result
of a philosophy which conceived of all power as arising within the Individual,
there is decentralisation of power.
In our diagram we can visualise people
forming the circumference of the circle and bringing pressure upon their various
institutions at the centre, to get them the results desired.
We can examine
this matter further by using the analogy of a cricket club. Individuals are free
to join the club or to leave it.
They associate for the purpose of playing
cricket. They next elect a committee, which is charged with the responsibility
of ensuring that the members can play cricket under the best possible conditions.
We can note here that the members don't tell
the Committee how to get them the results they want; they simply judge by results.
if the Committee feels that cricket is an inferior game to golf and tries to insist
that all members of the club shall play golf, obviously the members will protect
their rights by simply leaving the club - i.e., contracting out.
Freedom to Choose or Refuse
The most effective control that the individual
can have over any organisation is the freedom to withdraw his support of that
organisation if it does not give him what he wants.
Clifford Hugh Douglas
has commented as follows in "The Big Idea":-
can very nearly be defined as the right to a atrophy a function by contracting
out. It is essentially negative, although contrary to the curious nonsense that
is prevalent about 'negativeness,' is none the less essential for that reason
The power to contract out is the first and most deadly blow to the Supreme State."
- The Pyramidal Organisation
Where there is compulsion
of individuals, compelling them to do things they do not want to do, we get a
different type of structure. This type of organisation can be shown diagrammatically
as a pyramid. In this structure a few people at the apex of the pyramid have all
power and authority. There are various stratas in the pyramid, all comprised of
groups of people who are controlled by the strata above.
the base of the pyramid we have the great majority of the people, and their only
chance of furthering themselves in this type of organisation is by intrigue and
Every strata in the pyramid must maintain its position by controlling
all those below it and by making itself subservient to those above. In such an
organisation the worst in human beings is developed, not the best.
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