The Local World: Mutualism
Dobbs' The Local World Part III
"Cheerful in the face of Armageddon"
was the headline of Decca Aitkenhead's March 2008 interview with noted scientist
James Lovelock, Guardian Weekly 28/3/08. Mr. Lovelock, 88, alarmingly predicts
that "80% of the human race will be wiped out by 2100." Reading the scientist's
gloomy expectations sent me back to an essay by Geoffrey Dobbs on the man and
his GAIA Hypothesis: "Gaia - Goddess, Organism or Association?" * which first
appeared in the Home Quarterly, Autumn 1989.
Geoffrey Dobbs' balanced
approach to such a broad range of issues is most helpful as we try to discern
truth from error and fact from propaganda in today's world.
The purpose of
re-presenting the following passages from his lengthy article is to point the
reader to the evidence of the mutualism and co-operation, Dobbs, as a biologist,
philosopher and social crediter, observed in the world around him. It was his
conclusion that wherever healthy growth, development, sustainability and continuity
of living groups can be observed, the increment of the association based on mutualism,
is evident. He writes:
handmaid of the sciences:
"My father (a Cambridge wrangler) used, in his
humble way, to describe mathematics as "the handmaid of the sciences," with the
implication that even the best servant becomes a tyrant 'when he (or she) ruleth.'
But that is just what happened. When the mathematical aspect directs the research
and is applied to matters other than those naturally quantitative, it becomes
a religion which inevitably eliminates belief in all things personal.
so, the most rabid mathematical automatist cannot live by maths alone. Being human
he is bound to use a verbal language which can no more avoid the personal than
mathematics can handle it, and this is bound to have its effect. Indeed, life
is impossible without some sort of belief in personal qualities. In the end many
of them find it necessary to seek refuge in a sort of pantheism in which Nature
has indeed become their God (or their Goddess).
This brings us back to
James Lovelock and his Gaia Hypothesis - a concept based largely upon physical
and chemical studies of the atmosphere and the oceans, the most fluid and continuous
parts of the Earth's surface. It gives us a more comprehensive view than before
of the planet and its biosphere which if rightly interpreted can be of immense
value, and if wrongly, can be disastrous."
Lovelock, an independent scientist
has been working from his one-man laboratory in an old mill in Cornwall since
the mid-1960s. Dobbs considered him a remarkable man who didn't depend upon a
salaried post and career, but supported himself and his family by the income from
his own inventions, the best-known in 1989 being the electron-capture detector.
This invention enabled the detection of extremely minute traces of substances,
such as pesticides, in the atmosphere and elsewhere, and the discovery of the
widespread pollution of the environment.
According to Dobbs: "James Lovelock and his GAIA Hypothesis,
exerted a major influence on the Green Movement and such financial independence
when combined with a scientific reputation of sufficient magnitude to secure election
as a Fellow of the Royal Society, and some participation in the American Space
Programme, conferred a freedom of mind which enabled him to launch an hypothesis
- at the time so far-fetched and imaginative it was bound to be rejected at the
outset by the Scientific Establishment and by the major journals.
that the idea of the Earth as a living entity was anything new. It was not unknown
in space fiction, and Lovelock himself pays tribute to some of his scientific
predecessors, e g. the Scottish scientist James Hutton in 1785, and the Ukrainians
Korolenko and Vernadskv. But when Lovelock took it up he transformed it into a
serious scientific hypothesis for which he adduced much evidence, though by its
nature absolute proof must be impossible. The concept as applied to the Earth
appears to have originated with his involvement in designing instruments for the
detection of life on Mars. It seemed to him that the direct attempt to find organisms
or their products similar to those on Earth was the wrong approach. If Mars has
a biosphere it must affect its atmosphere and therefore the sensitive analysis
of the planet's air would provide the best evidence. Failing such evidence the
search for living organisms in a few samples of its surface must be useless."
Lovelock challenged view of earth as a
mass of inorganic material:
"The concept of the biosphere - the surface
zone of the Earth inhabited by living organisms - had to precede that of Gaia,
the whole living planet including its rocks, its air and its oceans as a self-
regulating organism, maintained by the active feedback processes of its biota,
the total collection of life-forms in the biosphere. While this might seem an
obvious extension of thought to the ecologist (but not till after it had been
made!) it was in fact a great leap of the imagination, challenging the established
view of the Earth as a mass of inorganic material which happened to have provided
a home for living organisms. It is its unique, shining atmosphere with its high
oxygen content which gives away the secret of life on the third planet from the
Sun. But is it just on it; or is life an essential property of the whole planet,
transforming and distinguishing it from all the others ?
Earth's Control System:
"The presence of oxygen has commonly been accounted
for by the loss of hydrogen to space from water in the outer atmosphere under
the influence of solar radiation, leaving the heavier oxygen behind; but this,
perhaps once a major factor, is considered to be so no longer. How then does the
Earth's atmospheric content of oxygen remain so constantly at 21 % - about the
maximum which will allow vegetation to grow without being eliminated by fires
? What is the control system ? The answer suggested is that it is the production
of methane in the anaerobic muds of marshes, lake and river sides, coastal sea-beds,
estuaries, etc. This gas would take up oxygen by being oxidised to CO2
and water, while some of the carbon which does not form methane is buried in these
anaerobic layers, thus leaving more oxygen free. This could provide a method of
cybernetic control over the amount of oxygen in the air.
his first hook ("GAIA," 1979, and 1982, 1987 as Oxford Paperback), Lovelock gives
a diagram illustrating this oxygen and carbon cycle. He also suggests a somewhat
similar control mechanism which maintains the salt concentration in the sea at
a level compatible with life. With the run-off from the land pouring into the
sea continually, its salt content should have risen far above present levels were
it not for the deposit of salt by evaporation in land-locked bays and lagoons.
These are but two examples of the many control systems at work in the planet.
It is one of the virtues of the GAIA hypothesis that it constantly suggests these
questions concerning homeostatic systems which we expect to find in living organisms,
often with most revealing results.
History of Earth:
"In his second book: "The Ages of Gaia" (Oxford 1988),
Lovelock gives us a speculative history of the Earth that starts off according
to current theory. This requires a supernova explosion to provide the heavier
elements found in the planets for which the Sun's hydrogen fusion process is inadequate.
The early years of planetary existence are very largely unknown, but an atmosphere
rich in CO2 with methane and with some hydrogen present,
is now thought probable. (It used to be mostly ammonia). The oceans would have
been laden with iron and other elements and compounds which could exist only in
the absence of oxygen. In this anoxic environment the raw materials of life, compounds
such as amino acids, nucleosides and sugars, described as 'organic' because they
were formerly imagined to be exclusively the products of life, are thought to
have accumulated, until one day a living, reproducing organism appeared.
Speculative Genesis Story:
"This primaeval molecular soup which
arose under the action of solar radiation and perhaps also Earth's own heat and
residual radioactivity, is now an established part of the current Genesis myth
of science. The next great leap to the living cell is taken for granted, and once
this has occurred natural selection can be held responsible for its survival and
rapid spread. Only when the new form of microbial life had spread all over the
planet's surface could Gaia be said to have been born.
passes rather easily over these early stages, while admitting that they are all
speculative. Being himself primarily a physical scientist rather than a biologist
he relies largely upon the writings of others, especially on Professor Lynn Margulis's
picture of early life on the planet. Plausible explanations as to how the molecular
'protolife' might have arisen are not lacking, and after that it is considered
'reasonable' that "life started from the molecular chemical equivalent of eddies
and whirlpools. At first these living cells must have fed upon 'the abundant organic
chemicals lying around," but at some early time some organisms must have "discovered
how to tap the abundant and inexhaustible energy of sunlight" by the process of
photosynthesis. This liberates oxygen, which at first would have been instantly
absorbed by the anoxic environment, but at some time must have begun to accumulate
in the air until it reached its present proportion of 21% of the atmosphere, at
which level it is maintained by the homeostatic processes of the biosphere.
are invited to visualise the Archaean as an age of anaerobic bacterial domination
of the biosphere, ending with an Ice Age which may have marked the appearance
of free oxygen in the atmosphere, attributed to the growing activities of photosynthesisers.
It is suggested that the remnants of this Archaean biosphere survive to-day in
the muds, swamps, oozes and sediments, wherever oxygen is excluded, and even in
our own guts, playing an important part in the feedback processes which maintain
the Earth in viable equilibrium.
and use of the electron microscope revealed a new world of fine structure which
also revolutionised our classification of living organisms. It confirmed that
the bacteria (now classed as prokaryotes) have a simpler cell structure
than the other organisms (eukaryotes).
In prokaryotes the genetic material,
now known as the DNA, is diffused in the cell, not contained in a nucleus or other
organelle bounded by a membrane as in eukaryotes.
But it also was found that
the blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) differed from all the other algae in
being prokaryotes like the bacteria, as well as containing chlorophyll and thus
being able to photosynthesise as do all the other, enkaryotic algae. In fact,
Lovelock refers to them as Cyanobacteria. He asserts that they must have been
the first photosynthesisers to arise on Earth and to have been responsible for
the first stage in oxygenating the atmosphere.
This next step, from the
less-organised cell of the prokaryote to the more complex and organised cell of
the eukaryote, opened the way for the development of all the organisms known to
us, large and small, above the bacterial level : though it is still true that
the bacteria play a much greater part in the ecology of the planet than is realised
by those who think of them mainly as pathogens. The question as to how this great
advance, from pro- to eu-karyote, can have taken place is an intriguing one, to
which J. E. Lovelock's associate, Professor Lynn Margulis has suggested a most
imaginative and stimulating answer in the form of the endo-symbiosis hypothesis.
Muck, Magic, Mutualism and Money:
is a word which means simply 'living together,' but in practice and long usage
it has come to refer to the intimate association of dissimilar organisms to their
mutual advantage and interdependence : and thereby has arisen much argument.
a long time the biological Establishment considered the idea of mutual benefit
between organisms as in some way 'soft,' sentimental and 'unscientific,' and,
indeed, to be ranked with the same sort of 'crankiness' as composting and organic
farming - generally derided (especially at Rothamsted, the pioneers in chemical-industry
farming) as 'muck and magic.'
One might retaliate
by saying that the Establishment was non compost mentis before the present
artificial vogue for every sort of 'green' thinking turned the tables on it (or
them) ! Even now, 'microbes' and 'germs' are still thought of mainly as disease
organisms, and fungi as nasty poisonous things or plant pests. As a result our
whole culture is disease-orientated.* Hence also the distortion of popular Darwinism
as expressed in the quotation : "Nature red in tooth and claw" and the current
emphasis on everything perverse, lethal, fearful, criminal, violent or catastrophic.
"Comparatively few people yet realise the
true situation : namely that symbiosis and innumerable less intimate forms of
intricate mutualism and association, including commensalism (feeding together)
and successionalism (one form following another) constitute the main basis of
the biosphere, while parasitism and predation, are marginal and secondary phenomena,
though important as limiting and eliminating factors.
You cannot have a parasite
without a host, but you can have a 'host' without a parasite, and a 'disease'
has no existence except as an abnormal condition of an organism."
for all ?
"But to return to Professor Lynn Margulis and her endosymbiosis
theory of how the more complex eukaryotes could have arisen from the simpler prokaryotes.
Every cell of a eukaryote contains a number of distinct small bodies known as
'organelIes,' some of them not unlike bacteria, with their own definite walls
and DNA resembling in some cases that in bacteria. Examples are the 'mitochondria,'
energy-giving bodies found in all eukaryote cells including our own, and the chloroplasts
which contain the chlorophyll which enables green plants to photosynthesise and
obtain energy from sunlight and restore oxygen to the atmosphere - both now quite
vital to life on this planet.
is that these organelles originated as bacteria which had been taken into the
larger cells some time during the period of prokaryote dominance of the biosphere,
and instead of being swallowed, or parasitising their hosts, they had become symbionts
(inside or endo-symbionts) so intimate that they had become essential components
of the cell. This theory, like the Gaia hypothesis itself, was once regarded as
far-fetched, but is now treated with respect as the widespread nature of symbiosis
is increasingly realised, though still subject to criticism.
relationships little known even yet:
"For a long time the heavy use of
fertilizers in nurseries and many experimental plots suppressed and obscured the
almost universal presence of mycorrhizas (fungus-roots) on the roots of most green
plants growing in natural soils, to the mutual advantage (as many studies have
now shown) of both plant and fungus. The example of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in
the roots of leguminous plants is well known; but the supreme example of a symbiotic
association so intimate and permanent that the product behaves like an autonomous
organism has long been known as a lichen.
Indeed, throughout human history
up to the late nineteenth century lichens have been known and studied simply as
a sort of plants, and the discovery of their dual nature : a fungus thallus incorporating
cells of green (or blue-green) algae, usually in a distinct layer, was at first
rejected with withering scorn.
There are innumerable cases also of symbiosis
involving bacteria (for instance those in the rumen of cattle which enable them
to digest cellulose), but how widespread bacterial symbiosis with larger organisms
may be is so far little known or studied. Similarly with the small, unicellular
green algae, such as for instance, those which inhabit the bodies of some small
animals, e.g. the common polyp Hydra viridis, thus giving them the benefits of
photo-synthesis while sharing in their other food intake.
"No doubt these discoveries had to await the development
of the light microscope to a point where the green cells, formerly known in lichens
as 'gonidia,' could be recognised as algae. In the same way, Margulis's hypothesis
had to await the development of the electron microscope to the point where the
fine structure of bacteria and of organelles could be studied in the light of
our knowledge of the structure of DNA. But if we accept the current evolutionary
genesis story of the creation of life on this planet, including its early prokaryotic
Age, it is hard to see how otherwise the eukaryotic cell with its vital organelles,
which is now the basis of all larger life-forms, including ourselves, could have
arisen. And in that event every living thing above the bacterial level is not
a simple organism but a co-operative far more ancient and intimate than the lichens.
"As with the Gaia hypothesis itself, we are
here still dealing with a hypothesis, not with something which can be proven,
now or perhaps ever. But it fits in well with most of the known facts, is mentally
stimulating and suggestive of further lines of enquiry, and has all the signs
of a constructive and valuable advance in thinking. Moreover, no equally convincing
alternative has so far been suggested.
What James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis
together seem to have achieved is to round off and pull together the recent trend
towards ecological understanding in a way which is bound to influence the direction
of biological thought for generations, probably as much as have evolutionary theory
and molecular biology. What is to be hoped is that, unlike these, the Gaia concept
will not be erected into a religion.
in creation and a Creator has been the normal and almost universal basis of human
reason and understanding of the Universe for as long as we have any record. Though
it came to a realistic and practical point with the Christian faith in the Incarnation
from which arose the inspiration of modern science, in all the major religions
including those which worshipped many gods or innumerable local spirits, there
was nearly always, behind and beyond them all, the great and ultimate Creator;
and it was not until the Greek philosophers had cast aside the gods of Olympus
for the one God who created and maintains the Universe that they could begin to
make sense of it
Viewing the Planet as
"On the other hand, the true language of physical science, namely
mathematics, though capable of indefinite expansion on the one plane of number
and quantity, is totally incapable of dealing with the personal, with will, purpose,
mind, love, or God
. It has been said that the eyes of a fool are on the ends
of the earth, and 'viewing the planet as a whole' can well increase the already
excessive tendency to evade tackling every awkward problem by enlarging it to
global size, and then looking for global action by a global power to 'solve' it
- ignoring the fact that it is mainly centrally imposed activities on a global
scale which are the chief threat to human life on the planet.
description of the Earth as 'living' is quite consistent with his belief that
it is maintained in a state suitable for life by the homeostatic processes of
the living organisms of the biosphere. But his description of it as an 'organism'
is carrying an analogy too far.
An ecological association is not an organism,
though it shares some of the properties of life with the organisms of which it
consists. But these are not analogous with the cells of an organism, which possesses
a unity derived from the identity of the DNA in every cell brought about by sexual
fusion followed by cell division, as well as the contact of every cell membrane
with its neighbours, through which a controlled exchange occurs throughout the
body. In contrast, the constituents of an association are all different, by no
means always in continuous contact, but are moulded together into a living entity
by mutuality, the whole being defined by the eliminating factors of the environment,
and of competition, death and disease.
Mutuality, not an Organism or a God:
"Gaia, if we must call it that, is
an incredibly complex association of associations of living beings. It survives
by its immense variety, its homeostatic properties, its mutuality, and complementarity.
Any attempt at central control by one kind of its constituent organisms is contrary
to its nature, and is simply asking for the offender to be eliminated. But how
many of the people who now call themselves 'ecologists' and talk about 'saving
the planet' understand this ? Identifying the living planet with the ancient Earth-Goddess
first of all suggests it is a single organism, secondly invites the conversion
of a scientific theory into a primitive pagan cult - an aspect indeed, of the
nature cult, and thirdly endows the Earth with feminine gender.
the other hand, he takes seriously the greenhouse effect, the destruction of tropical
rainforests, and the growth of human population, but is well aware of our lack
of sufficient knowledge to place these into the time-scale of the Earth's natural,
astronomical and atmospheric changes. Nevertheless, Lovelock has some of the limitations
of his mathematical-physical-chemical view of life.
One of his somewhat maverick
suggestions (New Scientist 23-9-89) is that : "We should get industry to
synthesise foodstuffs so that we can give back the land, keeping ourselves in
"This seems quite inconsistent both with his life-style and
with his main thesis in the Gaia books, namely that we ourselves are a part of
the living Earth, not an alien life upon it, and having our vital part to play
as members of the biosphere, we cannot cut ourselves off from it."
Dobbs finishes his article with these words: "But if that inconsistency strikes
me as a distinctly naughty hobgoblin, at least it is not the hobgoblin of a little
Nineteen years later James Loveleock
warns in his latest book, "The Revenge of Gaia" that everything being done about
'climate change' is wrong and finishes the interview with these words: "
we'll have a human on the planet that really does understand it and can live with
Owen Barfield in "History
in English Words," explains:
"Environment, evolution, development,
instinct, species, spontaneous, variation are some of the words, whose modern
meanings, if we look at their semantic history, are found to bear the unmistakable
stamp of Darwinism, and we ought perhaps to add ooze and slime.
To Darwin we should have to attribute the tendency of evolution to lose its
etymological suggestion of a vegetable growth, an unfolding from the centre outwards."
* Geoffrey Dobbs' full article on James
Lovelock is on the League website: >www.alor.org/Race/Culture/Nation/The Local
World Part III<.
Further reading. "Thy
Kingdom Come," by Ralph Laslett Duck $7.50 posted; "What is Social Credit?" by
Geoffrey Dobbs $5.50 posted.
GROWTH OF THE SOCIAL CREDIT
"Extraordinary Times, Intentional Collapse, and Takedown of the U.S.A." by
Richard C. Cook
as Richard Cook of America, having studied C.H. Douglas' writings, have come to
grasp the fundamental importance of a nation's money system. He is now very active
among his own people warning and teaching them of what to expect if radical changes
are not made to the core problem - the present fraudulent money system and who
should control it.
In the latest article to appear online: "Extraordinary
Times, Intentional Collapse, and Takedown of the U.S.A." Global Research 30/4/08,
he tells us he is often asked for personal financial advice which was:.
to invest in yourself and in other people. Plant a robust home garden. Learn new
skills. Start community food co-ops that buy local products. Establish local currencies
and barter networks. Join or form a union. Raise bees. Put kids through school.
Get out of debt. Pray and meditate. Become politically active. Demand change.
Individualism as opposed to Individuality:
I have to say, having been involved in the League of Rights for over forty
years, it is my experience, that the wish for financial advice to save themselves
is a typical response from people wrapped up in their own self-centred, egotistical
lifestyle. When it dawns on them that their own well being is in peril, their
first thought is to 'save themselves'. How many of these people have given much
thought to those whom 'the system' has discarded? It is typical of modern man
and his individualism - who thinks he is an island unto himself. He uses the products
of other men's industry, public highways, education systems, the public hospitals,
etc. without comprehending these systems and institutions grew out of the efforts
of the whole community, or the whole nation! He is a privileged beneficiary of
the community's inheritance, the whole community's past efforts. The time will
come when it will (hopefully) dawn on him such a fraudulent financial system cannot
be morally, environmentally and mathematically sustained. Hopefully he will become
just as concerned for his neighbours' well-being as for his own. That is what
it means to 'do unto others as you would have them do unto you'. While writing
for and to his fellow Americans, it behoves us all to get involved and demand
change of the corrupt financial system:
"Extraordinary Times, Intentional Collapse, and Takedown of the U.S.A."
national monetary system should reflect the treatment of credit as a public utility
and thereby make possible responsible economic activity and the fair distribution
of wealth. Some of the measures which should be implemented are contained in the
American Monetary Institute's draft American Monetary Act. (www.monetary.org/)
The resulting currency could be issued, not in the form of debt instruments like
Federal Reserve Notes, but silver-backed Treasury certificates as in President
Kennedy's program of 1963.
a new monetary system could be as follows:
A guaranteed income, followed
by a National Dividend, should be paid directly to citizens from a Treasury credit
account without recourse to either taxation or government borrowing. (C.H. Douglas's
theory of the National Dividend as the monetization of the net appreciation of
the productivity of a modern industrial economy is set forth in this author's
Global Research article entitled, "An Emergency Program of Monetary Reform for
the United States," April 26, 2007.)
Dividend, currently estimated at over US$12,000 per capita annually, could be
distributed in a variety of ways, in addition to a subsistence stipend. This could
include price subsidies for consumer purchases, taking over existing Social Security
payments, universal health insurance, or payments to women with young children.
Another way to issue a National Dividend would be to monetize food production,
whereby anyone who delivers food products to wholesalers receives a government
payment as a producer's subsidy, thereby discounting food at the consumer point-of-sale.
This would work in a similar fashion to farm parity pricing programs of bygone
As explained by Wallace Klinck, "Social
Credit policy is to compensate retail prices at the point-of-sale. It is not,
however, to subsidize production which would be subject to consumer choice and
fully supported by consumers having at all times financial income adequate to
fully liquidate the costs of production. That is, production policy is to be determined
essentially by consumers - this being the Social Credit concept of genuine economic
democracy with maximum decentralization, or dispersion, of power over production
Price controls under the present financial
cost-accountancy system, where continued economic activity is dependent upon an
inflationary expansion of credit to meet rising costs arising consequent to flawed
accountancy, is demonstrably impossible. Price regulation, however, would appear
to be both necessary and realistic under a self-liquidating Social Credit system
of finance. Although not generally recognized, prices are 'controlled,' (or manipulated)
under the present system of finance in a most deleterious manner."
government should also spend money directly into circulation, as it did with Greenbacks
in the 19th century, both for operating expenses and for infrastructure projects
at the federal, state, and local levels. A national infrastructure bank could
be capitalized by state and local infrastructure bonds without any impact on the
federal budget. Such spending would again be without recourse to borrowing or
taxation. Infrastructure spending could be either through grants or low-interest
loans. As with Congressman Dennis Kucinich's current proposed infrastructure bank
legislation, the program could specify that a requisite proportion of funding
be spent on American-made products such as steel.
should reform banking by eliminating the catastrophic privately-controlled fractional
reserve system. Instead, the government should lend money at a low rate of interest
to banks, then use the proceeds to help pay for legitimate government expenditures
in the areas of regulation or services. Use of the proceeds, combined with the
new Greenbacks and savings from no longer having to pay interest on an unnecessary
national debt, would eliminate the need for the federal income tax, allowing the
16th Amendment to be repealed. In fact, under a monetary system such as the one
described herein, probably three-fourths or more of the current societal tax burden
could be eliminated.
In order to clear the
way for these reforms, bankruptcy reorganization of the entire $50 trillion of
existing debt in the U.S. should be undertaken, with debt being restructured and
paid down over time or simply written off. Bank lending for speculation, such
as for mergers and acquisitions, equity and hedge fund speculation, and purchase
of securities on margin has been explosively enabled through bankers' ability
to move massive amounts of funds electronically. These leveraging practices should
be outlawed, as they are abuses of the public interest. (According to the London
Times, one John Paulson made $3.7 billion in hedge fund trading last year.
"Mr. Paulson's firm, Paulson & Co, made a fortune from shorting America 's sub-prime
mortgage markets.") A national fuel conservation program with real teeth should
also be instituted. And at least half of the U.S. military budget should be eliminated,
with half of the remainder devoted to energy R&D and domestic public works. Employees
of the military-industrial complex will find many new career opportunities as
the domestic economy revives.
As these measures
are taken, the United States will no longer be dancing to the financiers' tune.
We would be helping prepare a future where man's inhumanity to man as expressed
through war and financial exploitation is no longer glorified. Such a future would
be a milestone in the eventual enlightenment of the human race. But these are
measures that must be implemented now, before it is too late."
C. Cook is a former U.S. federal government analyst, whose career included service
with the U.S. Civil Service Commission, the Food and Drug Administration, the
Carter White House, NASA, and the U.S. Treasury Department. His articles on economics,
politics, and space policy have appeared on numerous websites. His book on monetary
reform is entitled We Hold These Truths: The Promise of Monetary Reform and will
be published by Tendril Press. His website is at www.richardccook.com. Questions,
comments, or contributions may be directed to email@example.com.
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